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NC State Extension

2017 Yellow Summer and Zucchini Squash Cultigen Evaluations

Horticulture Series 223

Jonathan R. Schultheis & Keith D. Starke, Department of Horticultural Science

General Cultural Practices

The squash study was established on black plastic mulch. Pesticides used on all plots were chemicals labelled for that crop, 2017 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual.

Acknowledgements

variety trial booklet cover

Click the image to view or print the PDF version of this booklet.

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Cathy Herring, (Superintendent), and Brandon Poole, (Horticulture Supervisor, Central Crops Research Station, Clayton, NC), as well as, the personnel at the research station for their help in establishing, maintaining, and harvesting the squash cultigen evaluation study. We want to acknowledge the following summer employees for their assistance with the study: Stephen Bajorek, Shannon Dexter, Elizabeth Indermaur, Katherine Phillips, as well as, graduate students; Fernando Montero De Espinosa and Marlee Trandel. We would also like to thank Joy Smith for conducting the statistical analysis on the data that was collected in this study. The cooperation and support of Abbot & Cobb, Clifton, Bejo, Enza Zaden, HM Clause, Rijk Zwaan, Seminis/Monsanto, and Syngenta are also appreciated.

Disclaimer

This publication presents data from the cultigen evaluation study conducted during 2017. Information in this report is believed to be reliable but should not be relied upon as a sole source of information. Limited accompanying detail is included but excludes some pertinent information, which may aid interpretatio

Zucchini and Yellow Squash Cultural Practices for 2017 Cultigen Study, Central Crops Research Station; Clayton, NC.

Introduction

In 2017, summer squash production totaled 2,400 acres in North Carolina. Summer squash remains an important crop to North Carolina producers as the state ranked 7th among those states that produced the crop nationwide in 2013. Summer squash ranks among the top 10 vegetables grown in North Carolina. Squash represents significant economic importance to North Carolina growers with a crop value of $10.1 million in 2017. North Carolina growers have maintained their competitiveness through producing squash varieties that are highly desired by the consumer. In an effort to remain competitive in the marketplace and maximize profitability growers seek to grow squash varieties that will provide them with the highest yields and greatest overall fruit quality. The zucchini market in North Carolina has typically been supplied with a medium green fruit, however, some markets have seen increased demand for cultigens that produce a darker green fruit. Summer squash plantings in North Carolina typically experience higher incidence of disease and insect pressure as they are harvested in the fall when environmental factors favor increased presence of these plant pests. In 2017 the field study was planted on 14 August and we began harvesting on 20 September. The squash were rated for marketable and non-marketable yields, for early and late production, and for consistency of production throughout the harvest period. Quality measurements were collected and average plant stand counts were calculated to conduct the most complete evaluation of each cultigen in the field study. We again included the number of fruit produced per plant over various harvest intervals, and for the entire production season to compliment the yield data.

Materials and Methods

Seeds were sown on 14 August 2017. Hills with seed skips were replanted 9 days after planting to maximize plant stand counts in each plot. Final stand counts were taken on 20 September (approx. 5 weeks after initial planting). This study was planted into existing plastic mulch from a preceding squash study. The herbicide Gramoxone was applied to row middles at 4.5 pt/acre and the herbicide Curbit was applied to spray alleys at 4 pt/ac on 9 September. The insecticides Asana XL, FanFare, Perm-Up 2EC were rotated and applied as a preventative measure beginning 30 August and on the following dates: 13, 20, 27 and 4 September. The following fungicide products were used: Bravo, Presidio, Prestine, Prevacur Flex, Ranman, and Viviando; and applied on the following dates: 30 August; 13, 20, and 27 September; and 4 October. Fertilizer was applied through drip irrigation on the following dates: 9 and 30 August; 13, 20, and 27 September; and 4 October. Harvests were conducted three times per week with a total of 12 harvests for the study. The first harvest was 20 September and the final harvest (#12) was completed on 16 October. Most fruit were harvested when the blossom was detached from the fruit, and then categorized as marketable or nonmarketable. Fruit that were small or undersized, or were misshapen, were categorized as culls (non-marketable). Graded fruit were weighed and counted for each category and plot. The study design was a randomized complete block with four replications. Other than yield, other quality measurements taken were: percent plant stand and average fruit length and width. Overall, plant stands were excellent for zucchini squash at 97% on average and somewhat lower for yellow squash at 85%. However, the entire study was affected by severe virus pressure and therefore underperformed with regards to overall fruit yield and quality.

The highest yields of US #1 squash were obtained during the first four harvests (74%) followed by (70%) in harvests 5 through 8 and (57%) in harvests 9 through 12 (Table 3).

Significant disease pressure moved into the study shortly after establishment and disease severity increased throughout the growing season. This greatly reduced marketable yields in harvests 5 through 8 and harvests 9 through 12 (Table 3). Significant disease pressure throughout the season suppressed yields of the entire study resulting in an only 73 % marketable fruit across all entries (Table 2). Entries that performed well above the average were E28Z.00628 (95%), Everglade (95%), Ladoga (93%), SV0914 (88%) and Sanabria (85%) (Table2). The entry with the highest yielding US #1 marketable fruit was SV0474 (505 boxes per acre), the lowest was 23-580 (90 boxes per acre). The low yields were mainly due to inferior plant stand.

The percentage of US #1 marketable fruit was especially high for SV0474 (98.1%) and Everglade (96.4%) during harvests 1 through 4; E28Z.00628 (95.1%) and Everglade (91.2%) during harvests 5 through 8; and during harvests 9 through 12, E28Z.00628 (88.6%), SV0914 (79.5%) and Everglade (74.9%) (Table 3).

The number of fruit per plant for each entry during three harvest intervals are shown in Table 4. Cumulative marketable fruit weight per plant over all harvests (12) averaged 73.3% (Table 5), while cumulative marketable fruit number per plant averaged 70.4% (Table 6).

The cumulative number of fruits per acre for each cultigen across all harvest (12) and for each grade are provided in Table 7, while the number of fruits per acre for each cultigen for harvests 1 through 4 (early season), harvests 5 through 8 (mid-season) and harvests 9 through 12 (late season) are provided in Table 8, with corresponding percentages in Table 9.

Limited data outside of yields were obtained, however, percentage plant stand and average fruit length and widths were determined (Table 10). Longer fruits were generally obtained with Sanabria, Calagreen, Zucchini Elite and Ladoga.

Yellow squash cultigens in the study were affected by virus similar to the zucchini squash entries. The highest yielding yellow squash cultigens (Marketable) based on total number of boxes per acre for early-harvests (1-4) were Grandprize and Cosmos (Table 11). Grandprize and Goldprize yielded the highest number of twenty pound boxes in the mid-season harvests (5-8) (Table 11). Similar to mid-season harvests, Grandprize and Goldprize had the highest marketable yields (based on total number of 20 pound boxes per acre) in the late-season harvests (9-12) (Table 11). Grandprize and Cosmos yielded the highest cumulative number of 20 lb boxes per acre (≥150) across all harvests (Table 12). Grandprize and Cosmos had the highest percentage (> 80%) of marketable fruit in early-harvests (1-4) (Table 13). In the mid-season harvests (5-8) Grandprize and Multipik had the highest percentage (> 59%) of marketable fruit. Grandprize had the highest percentage (> 67%) of marketable fruit in the late-season harvests (9-12) ) (Table 13). Grandprize and Multipik had the highest number of yields (≥ 2.0 fruit per plant) in the early-season harvests (1-4) (Table 14). Grandprize yielded the greatest number of fruit per plant in the mid-season harvests (5-8) and late-season harvests (8-12) (Table 14). Grandprize and Multipik yielded the highest percentage of fruit weight per plant (≥ 57%) across all harvests (Table 15). Grandprize and Multipik also had the highest percentage of fruit number per plant (≥ 61%) across all harvests (Table 16). These two cultigens yielded 19,275 and 15,028 fruit per acre, respectively, across all harvests (Table 17). Cosmos and Grandprize yielded the highest number of fruit per acre (> 7,150 fruit per acre) in the early-season harvests (1-4) (Table 18). Goldprize and Grandprize both yielded more than 6,200 fruit per acre in the mid-season harvests (5-8). Grandprize yielded the highest number of fruit per acre (5,772 fruit per acre) in the late-season harvests (9-12) (Table 18). Grandprize had the highest percentage (95% and 69%, respectively) of marketable fruit in the early-season harvests (1-4) and mid-season harvests (5-8) (Table 19). In the late-season harvests (9-12) Grandprize had the highest percentage (66%) of marketable fruit (Table 19). Cosmos had the longest fruit length, on average, followed by Grandprize, Multipik and Goldprize (Table 20).

Note: Severe virus presence was observed soon after the study was established in the field.Photographs contained in this publication illustrate the adverse effects virus had on fruit yield and quality across all harvests (12).


Figure 1. Zucchini squash photographs, replicated cultivars. Clayton, NC, 2017.


Table 1.1 Zucchini Squash cultigen trial yields¹, number of 20 lb boxes per acre, per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Cultivar

Company

Marketable2

Hvsts. 1 – 4

Marketable2

Hvsts. 5 – 8

Marketable2

Hvsts. 9 – 12

#1

#2

#1

#2

#1

#2

Calabonita Rijk Zwaan 130 9 37 8 72 18
Calagreen Rijk Zwaan 78 13 126 3 70 4
Everglade Syngenta 170 4 139 5 152 30
Green Machine Enza Zaden 123 0 95 13 79 4
Ladoga Bejo 139 11 113 6 100 31
Leopard HM Clause 81 6 127 4 105 4
Payload Syngenta 134 9 130 11 85 18
Sanabria Bejo 119 8 100 11 85 31
Spineless Supreme Syngenta 99 0 79 14 90 16
Tigress HM Clause 73 9 111 11 125 20
Zucchini Elite Clifton – HM Clause 49 1 66 8 39 6
23-580 Rijk Zwaan 22 0 34 2 33 0
23-585 Rijk Zwaan 148 6 131 0 126 5
E28Z.00628 Enza Zaden 155 16 178 3 152 5
SV0143 Syngenta 134 16 105 15 103 16
SV3451 Syngenta 87 4 91 2 94 7
SV0474 Seminis 227 2 139 13 139 14
SV0914 Seminis 38 5 75 9 117 26
SV6009 Seminis 106 7 89 4 65 0
SV9043 Seminis 103 5 109 2 115 7
Average 111 7 104 7 97 13
LSD (0.05) 63 15 56 12 56 19

¹Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on
20, 22, 25, and 27 September; Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6 October; Harvests 9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, 9, 11, 13 and 16 October 2017.
²Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No.1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No.2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).

Table 1.2. Zucchini Squash cultigen trial yields¹, number of 20 lb boxes per acre, per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Culls3

Virus4

Cultivar

Company

Harvest

1 – 4

Harvest

5 – 8

Harvest

9 – 12

Harvest

1 – 4

Harvest

5 – 8

Harvest

9 – 12

Calabonita Rijk Zwaan 9 13 15 40 33 107
Calagreen Rijk Zwaan 17 5 3 11 32 42
Everglade Syngenta 3 6 11 0 1 3
Green Machine Enza Zaden 20 3 4 8 57 100
Ladoga Bejo 2 0 10 1 9 6
Leopard HM Clause 26 5 10 10 13 41
Payload Syngenta 8 7 26 2 20 27
Sanabria Bejo 2 8 7 4 14 31
Spineless Supreme Syngenta 15 8 10 0 3 19
Tigress HM Clause 14 8 0 84 67 96
Zucchini Elite Clifton – HM Clause 25 10 13 55 43 94
23-580 Rijk Zwaan 0 0 2 23 35 110
23-585 Rijk Zwaan 4 1 3 22 26 72
E28Z.00628 Enza Zaden 9 3 5 0 3 9
SV0143 Syngenta 7 11 14 3 39 44
SV3451 Syngenta 8 12 14 17 55 96
SV0474 Seminis 2 5 1 0 3 37
SV0914 Seminis 6 14 4 4 7 4
SV6009 Seminis 3 5 7 9 62 85
SV9043 Seminis 10 4 1 7 33 53
Average 9 6 8 15 28 54
LSD (0.05) 15 11 10 28 41 44

³ Culls consisted primarily of misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.

Table 1.3. Zucchini Squash cultigen trial yields¹, number of 20 lb boxes per acre, per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Total 20 pound boxes per acre

Cultivar

Company

Harvest 1 – 4

Harvest 5 – 8

Harvest 9 – 12

Calabonita Rijk Zwaan 188 91 212
Calagreen Rijk Zwaan 120 166 120
Everglade Syngenta 177 151 197
Green Machine Enza Zaden 151 167 187
Ladoga Bejo 154 128 146
Leopard HM Clause 123 149 160
Payload Syngenta 154 168 156
Sanabria Bejo 133 132 155
Spineless Supreme Syngenta 113 103 135
Tigress HM Clause 180 197 241
Zucchini Elite Clifton – HM Clause 130 127 152
23-580 Rijk Zwaan 45 72 145
23-585 Rijk Zwaan 180 157 206
E28Z.00628 Enza Zaden 180 187 172
SV0143 Syngenta 160 171 177
SV3451 Syngenta 116 161 210
SV0474 Seminis 230 160 191
SV0914 Seminis 53 105 150
SV6009 Seminis 124 161 157
SV9043 Seminis 125 149 176
Average 142 145 172
LSD (0.05) 71 66 67

Table 2. Zucchini Squash cultigen trial yields, cumulative boxes, (20 lbs.), per acre, among all
harvests¹. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Marketable2

Percent

 Cultivar

#1

#2

 Culls

 Virus4

 Total

 Marketable

 Cull

 Virus

Calabonita 238 35 38 180 492 56 8 36
Calagreen 274 20 26 85 406 72 7 21
Everglade 462 39 21 4 525 95 4 1
Green Machine 297 17 26 164 505 63 5 32
Ladoga 352 48 12 15 428 93 3 3
Leopard 312 15 42 64 432 72 12 16
Payload 350 39 41 48 478 82 10 8
Sanabria 304 50 17 49 420 85 6 10
Spineless Supreme 268 29 33 22 352 84 10 6
Tigress 308 41 22 248 619 58 3 39
Zucchini Elite 155 15 47 192 408 43 12 45
23-580 90 2 2 168 262 34 0 66
23-585 405 11 8 119 542 75 2 23
E28Z.00628 485 25 17 12 539 95 3 2
SV0143YG 342 48 32 86 508 79 6 15
SV3451YG 272 13 33 168 486 61 8 31
SV0474YG 505 28 7 40 581 91 1 7
SV0914YG 230 40 23 15 308 88 7 5
SV6009YG 260 11 14 156 442 62 3 34
SV9043YG 328 14 15 93 450 77 3 20
Average 312 27 24 96 459 73 6 21
LSD (0.05) 136 26 21 97 172 15 6 15

¹ Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September; Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6 October; Harvests 9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October.
² Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
³ Culls consisted primarily of misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 3.1. Zucchini Squash cultigen trial yields¹. Percentage marketable fruit per indicated harvests by fruit yield for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

#1

#2

Cultivar

Company

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

Calabonita Rijk Zwaan 68 43 30 6 9 12
Calagreen Rijk Zwaan 66 74 57 11 1 4
Everglade Syngenta 96 91 75 2 3 15
Green Machine Enza Zaden 82 56 43 0 10 3
Ladoga Bejo 91 87 67 8 6 20
Leopard HM Clause 62 82 64 4 3 2
Payload Syngenta 83 80 54 8 8 12
Sanabria Bejo 87 74 54 9 9 22
Spineless Supreme Syngenta 86 76 66 0 9 11
Tigress HM Clause 40 58 52 6 6 8
Zucchini Elite Clifton – HM Clause 38 52 28 1 8 4
23-580 Rijk Zwaan 39 33 26 0 2 0
23-585 Rijk Zwaan 81 83 59 3 0 2
E28Z.00628 Enza Zaden 88 95 89 8 2 3
SV0143 Syngenta 86 63 60 9 10 10
SV0474 Seminis 98 88 73 1 8 7
SV0914 Seminis 62 71 80 8 8 16
SV3451 Syngenta 75 61 47 4 1 3
SV6009 Seminis 75 56 44 11 3 0
SV9043 Seminis 83 76 66 4 1 4
Average 74 70 57 5 5 8
LSD (0.05) 22 23 21 11 9 11

¹ Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September; Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6 October; Harvests 9-12
occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October.
² Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No.1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No.2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be
affected by defects).

Table 3.2. Zucchini Squash cultigen trial yields¹. Percentage cull and virus symptomatic fruit per indicated harvests by fruit yield for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Culls3

Virus4

Cultivar

Company

Harvest

1-4

Harvest

5 – 8

Harvest

9 – 12

Harvest

1 – 4

 Harvest

5 – 8

Harvest

9 – 12

Calabonita Rijk Zwaan 6 12 8 20 36 50
Calagreen Rijk Zwaan 14 3 3 9 21 36
Everglade Syngenta 2 5 8 0 1 2
Green Machine Enza Zaden 14 2 2 5 33 53
Ladoga Bejo 1 0 8 0 7 5
Leopard HM Clause 25 4 9 10 12 25
Payload Syngenta 8 3 17 1 9 16
Sanabria Bejo 2 10 5 3 7 19
Spineless Supreme Syngenta 14 10 9 0 5 14
Tigress HM Clause 6 5 0 49 32 40
Zucchini Elite Clifton – HM Clause 22 7 8 39 32 60
23-580 Rijk Zwaan 0 0 1 61 65 74
23-585 Rijk Zwaan 3 0 1 13 17 38
E28Z.00628 Enza Zaden 5 2 3 0 2 6
SV0143 Syngenta 4 8 8 2 19 22
SV0474 Seminis 1 3 0 0 2 20
SV0914 Seminis 11 14 3 19 6 2
SV3451 Syngenta 9 11 6 12 28 43
SV6009 Seminis 2 3 4 13 38 51
SV9043 Seminis 9 2 1 5 21 30
Average 8 5 5 13 20 30
LSD (0.05) 13 11 8 18 24 19

³ Culls consisted primarily of misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 4.1. Zucchini Squash cultigen trial yields¹, average number of marketable³ fruit per plant, per indicated harvest period² for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Marketable³

1 – 4

Marketable³

5 – 8

Marketable³

9 – 12

Cultivar

 #1

 #2

 #1

 #2

 #1

 #2

Calabonita 1.7 0.6 0.8 0.1 0.2 0.2
Calagreen 1.2 1.9 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.1
Everglade 2.0 2.1 1.2 0.1 0.1 0.3
Green Machine 1.8 1.4 0.9 0.0 0.2 0.1
Ladoga 1.7 1.3 1.1 0.1 0.1 0.4
Leopard 1.0 1.8 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.1
Payload 1.5 1.9 1.2 0.1 0.1 0.2
Sanabria 1.4 1.5 1.0 0.1 0.2 0.3
Spineless Supreme 1.4 1.3 1.2 0.0 0.2 0.2
Tigress 0.7 1.7 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.2
Zucchini Elite 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.0 0.1 0.1
23-580 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0
23-585 1.3 1.6 1.4 0.1 0.0 0.1
E28Z.00628 2.3 2.6 1.9 0.2 0.1 0.1
SV0143YG 1.7 1.4 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.2
SV0474YG 2.7 1.9 1.6 0.0 0.1 0.1
SV0914YG 0.5 1.5 1.9 0.1 0.2 0.3
SV3451YG 1.4 1.3 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.1
SV6009YG 1.6 1.3 1.1 0.1 0.1 0.0
SV9043YG 1.5 1.6 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.1
Average 1.4 1.5 1.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
LSD (0.05) 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2

¹ Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September; Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6
October; Harvests 9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October.
² Average number of fruit harvested from each plant at each harvest period (i.e.: 1-5; 6-10; 11-15).
³ Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No.1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No.2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater   surface area to be affected by defects).

Table 4.2. Zucchini Squash cultigen trial yields¹, average number of culls4 and virussymptomatic fruit per plant, per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Culls4

Virus5

Cultivar

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

Calabonita 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 1.3
Calagreen 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.7
Everglade 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1
Green Machine 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.4
Ladoga 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1
Leopard 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.7
Payload 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.4
Sanabria 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5
Spineless Supreme 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.3
Tigress 0.1 0.1 0.0 1.1 0.8 1.4
Zucchini Elite 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.6 1.3
23-580 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.5 1.2
23-585 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.7
E28Z.00628 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2
SV0143YG 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.5 0.6
SV0474YG 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5
SV0914YG 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
SV3451YG 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.3
SV6009YG 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.1 1.4
SV9043YG 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.6
Average 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.7
LSD (0.05) 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.5

4 Culls consisted primarily of misshaped fruit.
5 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.

Table 4.3. Zucchini Squash cultigen trial yields¹, total number of fruit per plant, per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Cultivar

Total

1 – 4

Total

5 – 8

Total

9 – 12

Calabonita 2.3 1.6 2.7
Calagreen 1.7 2.6 1.7
Everglade 2.1 2.4 1.8
Green Machine 2.2 2.6 2.5
Ladoga 1.9 1.5 1.6
Leopard 1.7 2.3 1.9
Payload 1.8 2.4 2.2
Sanabria 1.6 2.0 1.9
Spineless Supreme 1.7 1.7 1.8
Tigress 1.9 2.8 2.9
Zucchini Elite 1.8 1.7 2.1
23-580 0.7 0.8 1.6
23-585 1.8 2.0 2.2
E28Z.00628 2.7 2.8 2.3
SV0143YG 2.0 2.4 2.0
SV0474YG 2.8 2.3 2.1
SV0914YG 0.8 1.9 2.4
SV3451YG 1.9 2.0 2.6
SV6009YG 1.8 2.5 2.5
SV9043YG 1.9 2.2 2.0
Average 1.9 2.1 2.1
LSD (0.05) 0.8 0.8 0.6

Table 5 . Zucchini squash cultigen trial. Cumulative fruit weight and percent per plant among all harvests¹. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Marketable2

Percent

Cultivar

#1

#2

Culls3

Virus4

Total

Marketable

Cull

Virus

Calabonita 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.8 2.3 56 8 36
Calagreen 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.4 1.9 72 7 21
Everglade 2.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 2.5 95 4 1
Green Machine 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.8 2.4 63 5 32
Ladoga 1.6 0.2 0.1 0.1 2.0 93 3 3
Leopard 1.4 0.1 0.2 0.3 2.0 72 12 16
Payload 1.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.2 82 10 8
Sanabria 1.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 1.9 85 6 10
Spineless Supreme 1.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.6 84 11 6
Tigress 1.6 0.2 0.1 1.3 3.2 58 3 39
Zucchini Elite 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.9 1.9 43 12 45
23-580 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.2 34 1 66
23-585 1.9 0.1 0.0 0.5 2.5 75 2 24
E28Z.00628 2.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.5 95 3 2
SV0143 1.6 0.2 0.1 0.4 2.3 79 6 15
SV0474 2.4 0.1 0.0 0.2 2.7 91 1 8
SV0914 1.5 0.2 0.1 0.1 1.9 88 8 5
SV3451 1.3 0.1 0.2 0.8 2.3 61 8 31
SV6009 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.8 2.4 62 3 34
SV9043 1.5 0.1 0.1 0.4 2.1 77 3 20
Average 1.5 0.1 0.1 0.5 2.2 73 6 21
LSD (0.05) 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.8 15 6 15

1 Total of 12 harvests.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted primarily of mishaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 6. Zucchini squash cultigen trial yields, cumulative fruit number per plant and percent  per grade among all harvests1. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Marketable2

Percent

Cultivar

 #1

 #2

 Culls

 Virus4

Total

 Marketable

 Cull

 Virus

Calabonita 3.1 0.5 0.8 2.3 6.6 54 12 34
Calagreen 3.9 0.2 0.5 1.4 6.0 67 9 24
Everglade 5.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 6.3 91 6 2
Green Machine 4.1 0.2 0.4 2.5 7.3 61 6 33
Ladoga 4.0 0.6 0.2 0.3 5.0 91 3 5
Leopard 3.8 0.2 0.7 1.2 5.9 64 16 20
Payload 4.6 0.4 0.7 0.6 6.4 80 12 8
Sanabria 3.8 0.5 0.3 0.8 5.4 80 7 13
Spineless Supreme 3.9 0.4 0.7 0.3 5.2 81 14 5
Tigress 3.8 0.4 0.2 3.2 7.6 55 3 42
Zuchinni Elite 2.0 0.2 0.7 2.6 5.5 41 13 46
23-580 1.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 3.1 31 1 68
23-585 4.3 0.1 0.1 1.5 6.0 73 2 25
E28Z.00628 6.8 0.4 0.4 0.3 7.8 91 5 3
SV0143YG 4.1 0.5 0.6 1.2 6.3 74 9 17
SV0474YG 6.2 0.3 0.2 0.5 7.2 90 3 7
SV0914YG 3.9 0.5 0.3 0.3 5.0 88 6 5
SV3451YG 3.7 0.2 0.5 2.1 6.5 61 9 30
SV6009YG 3.9 0.1 0.2 2.6 6.8 59 3 38
SV9043YG 4.3 0.2 0.3 1.3 6.1 75 5 20
Average 4.0 0.3 0.4 1.4 6.1 70 7 22
LSD (0.05) 1.5 0.3 0.3 1.1 1.7 15 8 13

1 Total of 12 harvests.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which   are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted of primarily misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 7.1. Zucchini squash cultigen trial. Marketable fruit number per acre and  percentages, among all harvests¹. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Cultivar

Company

 #1

 #2

Calabonita Rijk Zwaan 13504 1960
Calagreen Rijk Zwaan 16226 980
Everglade Syngenta 22586 1742
Green Machine Enza Zaden 17642 871
Ladoga Bejo 17424 2614
Leopard HM Clause 16444 762
Payload Syngenta 20147 1851
Sanabria Bejo 16662 2069
Spineless Supreme Syngenta 16880 1634
Tigress HM Clause 13939 1416
Zucchini Elite Clifton – HM Clause 8712 980
23-580 Rijk Zwaan 4138 109
23-585 Rijk Zwaan 18622 545
E28Z.00628 Enza Zaden 29403 1634
SV0143 Syngenta 18023 2069
SV0474 Seminis 26463 1089
SV0914 Seminis 12524 1851
SV3451 Syngenta 15899 762
SV6009 Seminis 14048 436
SV9043 Seminis 18840 762
Average 16906 1307
LSD (0.05) 6217 1122

1 Total of 12 harvests.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted of primarily misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.

Table 7.2. Zucchini squash cultigen trial. Cumulative fruit number per acre and percentages, among all harvests¹. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Cultivar

 Culls

 Virus4

 Total

Marketable

 Culls

 Virus

Calabonita 3267 28532 54 12 34
Calagreen 2069 25265 67 9 24
Everglade 1634 26615 91 6 2
Green Machine 1851 31145 61 6 33
Ladoga 653 21889 91 3 5
Leopard 3158 25700 64 16 20
Payload 3049 27770 80 12 8
Sanabria 1307 23522 80 7 13
Spineless Supreme 2831 22651 81 14 5
Tigress 871 28967 55 3 42
Zucchini Elite 2940 24176 41 13 46
23-580 109 13504 31 1 68
23-585 545 26027 73 2 25
E28Z.00628 1851 34086 91 5 3
SV0143 2396 27606 74 9 17
SV0474 795 30525 90 3 7
SV0914 980 16335 88 6 5
SV3451 2287 27443 61 9 30
SV6009 762 24938 59 3 38
SV9043 1416 26463 75 5 20
Average 1739 25658 70 7 22
LSD (0.05) 1253 7548 15 8 13

Table 8.1. Zucchini squash cultigen trial yields1. Number of fruit per acre by grade per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

 Marketable2

#1

 Marketable2

#2

Cultivar

Company

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

Calabonita Rijk Zwaan 7296 2614 3594 327 653 980
Calagreen Rijk Zwaan 4901 7841 3485 545 218 218
Everglade Syngenta 8494 9039 5053 218 327 1198
Green Machine Enza Zaden 7732 5990 3920 0 653 218
Ladoga Bejo 7405 5445 4574 545 545 1525
Leopard HM Clause 4356 7732 4356 327 218 218
Payload Syngenta 6643 8276 5227 436 545 871
Sanabria Bejo 5990 6316 4356 327 653 1089
Spineless Supreme Syngenta 5881 5772 5227 0 980 653
Tigress HM Clause 2723 6098 5118 436 436 545
23-580 Rijk Zwaan 1089 1307 1742 0 109 0
23-585 Rijk Zwaan 5663 7079 5881 327 0 218
E28Z.00628 Enza Zaden 9801 #### 8276 980 327 327
Zucchini Elite Clifton – HM Clause 2505 3703 2505 109 544 327
SV0143 Syngenta 7187 6207 4628 653 762 653
SV0474 Seminis #### 8276 6643 109 545 436
SV0914 Seminis 1851 4683 5990 218 436 1198
SV3451 Syngenta 6098 5336 4465 327 109 327
SV6009 Seminis 5772 4574 3703 218 218 0
SV9043 Seminis 6643 6861 5336 218 109 436
Average 5979 6224 4704 316 419 572
LSD (0.05) 3105 3012 2271 676 648 779

Table 8.2. Zucchini squash cultigen trial yields¹. Number of fruit per acre by grade per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Culls3

Virus4

Cultivar

 1 – 4

 9 – 12

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

Calabonita 871 1307 1634 2505 5663
Calagreen 1307 218 653 2178 3158
Everglade 327 762 0 109 544
Green Machine 1307 218 436 4247 6098
Ladoga 218 436 109 653 436
Leopard 1851 762 871 1634 2831
Payload 653 1742 109 980 1633
Sanabria 218 436 218 1089 2178
Spineless Supreme 1525 762 0 218 1089
Tigress 436 0 4247 3267 5227
23-580 0 109 1742 2178 5227
23-585 218 218 1525 1634 3158
E28Z.00628 980 436 0 218 980
Zucchini Elite 2069 436 3049 2723 5772
SV0143 653 762 109 2287 2722
SV0474 218 33 0 218 1960
SV0914 327 218 327 436 218
SV3451 544 762 1089 1960 5445
SV6009 109 327 545 4029 5118
SV9043 980 109 545 2178 2722
Average 741 503 860 1737 3109
LSD (0.05) 884 565 1402 2097 2215

Table 8.3. Zucchini squash cultigen trial yields¹. Number of fruit per acre by grade per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Total

Cultivar

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

Calabonita 10128 6861 11543
Calagreen 7405 10781 7079
Everglade 9039 10019 7558
Green Machine 9474 11217 10454
Ladoga 8276 6643 6970
Leopard 7405 10128 8168
Payload 7841 10454 9474
Sanabria 6752 8712 8059
Spineless Supreme 7405 7514 7732
Tigress 7841 10237 10890
23-580 2831 3594 7079
23-585 7732 8821 9474
E28Z.00628 11761 12306 10019
Zucchini Elite 7732 7405 9039
SV0143 8603 10237 8766
SV0474 11870 9583 9071
SV0914 2723 5990 7623
SV3451 8059 8385 10999
SV6009 6643 9148 9148
SV9043 8385 9474 8603
Average 7895 8875 8887
LSD (0.05) 3365 3459 2500

1 Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September;  Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6   October; Harvests   9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are  permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted of primarily misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Figure 2. Yellow squash photographs, replicated cultivars. Clayton, NC, 2017


Table 11. Yellow Squash cultigen trial yields¹, number of 20 lb boxes per acre, per indicated harvests for replicated treatments.


Marketable2

Culls3

Virus4

Total

Cultivar – Company 1 – 4 5 – 8 9 – 12 1 – 4 5 – 8 9 – 12 1 – 4 5 – 8 9 – 12 1 – 4 5 – 8 9 – 12
Cosmos Abbot & Cobb 88 38 23 1 0 1 22 64 91 111 102 115
Goldprize Clifton 30 69 35 3 1 0 35 48 48 69 118 83
Grandprize Syngenta 96 71 81 1 2 2 7 27 36 103 100 119
Multipik HM Clause 58 48 32 4 3 1 35 28 28 97 80 61
Average 68 57 43 2 2 1 25 42 51 95 100 95
LSD (0.05) 23 40 25 6 3 4 28 25 30 32 38 25

1 Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September;  Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6   October; Harvests 9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October 2017.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted primarily of misshaped fruit. 
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 12. Yellow Squash cultigen trial yields, cumulative boxes, (20 lbs.), per acre, among
all harvests¹. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Percent
 Cultivar Marketable2  Culls  Virus4  Total  Marketable  Culls  Virus
Cosmos 150 2 176 328 46 0 53
Goldprize 134 3 132 270 49 1 50
Grandprize 247 4 71 322 76 1 22
Multipik 139 8 91 238 58 4 39
Average 168 4 118 290 57 2 41
LSD (0.05) 73 9 62 86 17 3 16

1 Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September;  Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6 October; Harvests   9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October.
Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted of primarily misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus. 


Table 13. Yellow Squash cultigen trial yields¹. Percentage marketable, cull, and virus symptomatic fruit per indicated harvests by fruit yield for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Percentage of Yield Based Upon Grade

 

Marketable2

Culls3

Virus4

Cultivar

Company

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

Cosmos Abbot & Cobb 81 38 20 1 0 1 18 63 79
Goldprize Clifton 42 57 44 5 0 0 54 43 56
Grandprize Syngenta 93 69 68 1 1 2 6 29 30
Multipik HM Clause 61 60 47 5 6 1 35 35 52
Average 69 56 45 3 2 1 28 42 54
LSD (0.05) 21 21 31 7 6 3 20 21 31

1 Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September;  Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6 October; Harvests   9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows  greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted primarily of mishaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 14. Yellow Squash cultigen trial yields¹, average number of fruit per plant, per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC,

2017.

Cultivar

Marketable3

1 – 4

Marketable3

5 – 8

Marketable3

 9 – 12

Cosmos 1.8 0.9 0.4
Goldprize 0.7 1.8 0.8
Grandprize 2.3 2.0 1.8
Multipik 2.0 1.5 1.0
Average 1.7 1.6 1.0
LSD (0.05) 1.2 1.2 0.9

Culls4

Virus5

Cultivar

1 – 4

5 – 8

9 – 12

1 – 4

5 – 8

9 – 12

Cosmos 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.4 1.9
Goldprize 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.6 1.1
Grandprize 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.7
Multipik 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.7 0.9 0.8
Average 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.6 1.1 1.1
LSD (0.05) 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.9 0.8

Total

Cultivar

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

Cosmos 2.3 2.3 2.3
Goldprize 1.9 3.4 1.9
Grandprize 2.5 2.8 2.6
Multipik 2.8 2.6 1.8
Average 2.4 2.8 2.2
LSD (0.05) 1.0 0.9 0.4


1
Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September;  Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6 October; Harvests   9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October.

2 Average number of fruit harvested from each plant at each harvest period (i.e.: 1-5; 6-10; 11-15).
3 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to be more  mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
4 Culls consisted primarily of misshaped fruit. 
5 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 15 . Yellow squash cultigen trial. Cumulative fruit weight and percent per plant
among all harvests1. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Weight

Percentage

Cultivar

Marketable2

Culls3

Virus4

Total

 Marketable

Culls

 Virus

Cosmos 0.8 0.0 0.9 1.7 46 1 53
Goldprize 0.8 0.0 0.9 1.7 49 1 50
Grandprize 1.6 0.0 0.4 2.0 76 1 22
Multipik 0.8 0.1 0.5 1.4 58 4 39
Average 1.0 0.0 0.7 1.7 57 2 41
LSD (0.05) 0.7 0.1 0.5 0.6 17 3 16

1 Total of 12 harvests.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted primarily of mishaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.
NS Data were not statistically significant.


Table 16. Yellow squash cultigen trial yields, cumulative fruit number per plant, among all harvests¹. Clayton,NC, 2017.

 Cultivar

 Marketable2

 Culls

 Virus4

Total

Percent

Marketable

Percent

Culls

Percent

Virus

Cosmos 3.1 0.1 3.7 6.9 46.6 0.8 52.6
Goldprize 3.3 0.2 3.8 7.2 48.6 2.3 49.1
Grandprize 6.1 0.2 1.5 7.8 75.7 1.5 22.8
Multipik 4.5 0.4 2.3 7.3 61.9 5.4 32.6
Average 4.3 0.2 2.8 7.3 58.2 2.5 39.3
LSD (0.05) 3.1 0.4 2.0 1.9 20.7 4.3 20.5

1 Total of 12 harvests.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted of primarily misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 17. Yellow squash cultigen trial. Cumulative fruit number per acre and percentages, among all harvests¹. Clayton, Fall, 2017.

Cultivar

Company

Marketable2
(M)

Culls3
(C)

Virus4
(V)

Total

%M

%C

%V

Cosmos Abbot & Cobb 12197 218 14375 26789 47 1 53
Goldprize Clifton 11652 545 11086 23283 49 2 49
Grandprize Syngenta 19275 436 5663 25374 76 2 23
Multipik HM Clause 15028 1198 7841 24067 62 5 33
Average 14538 599 9741 24878 58 3 39
LSD (0.05) 6864 996 6057 6227 21 4 21

1 Total of 12 harvests.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are   permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted of primarily misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 18. Yellow squash cultigen trial yields¹. Number of fruit per acre by grade per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Marketable2

 Cultivar

 Company

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9 – 12

Cosmos Abbot & Cobb 7187 3485 1525
Goldprize Clifton 2505 6425 2723
Grandprize Syngenta 7296 6207 5772
Multipik HM Clause 6643 5336 3049
Average 5908 5363 3267
LSD (0.05) 2538 3591 2171

Culls3

Virus4

Total

 Cultivar

1 – 4

5 – 8

9-12

1 – 4

5 – 8

9-12

1 – 4

5 – 8

9-12

Cosmos 109 0 109 1742 5336 7296 9039 8821 8930
Goldprize 436 109 0 3158 4661 3267 6098 11195 5990
Grandprize 109 218 109 327 2505 2831 7732 8930 8712
Multipik 545 545 109 2178 3158 2505 9365 9039 5663
Average 300 218 82 1851 3915 3975 8059 9496 7324
LSD (0.05) 704 513 290 1769 2577 2619 2315 3481 2306

1 Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September;  Harvests 5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6 October; Harvests   9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are  permitted to be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted of primarily misshaped fruit.
4 Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 19. Yellow squash cultigen trial1. Percent fruit number per acre per indicated harvests for replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 2017.

Marketable2

Culls3

Virus4

Cultivar

 1 – 4

 5 – 8

 9-12

1 – 4

5 – 8

9 -12

1 – 4

5 – 8

9 – 12

Cosmos 80 40 18 1 0 1 19 60 81
Goldprize 40 55 46 7 1 0 53 44 54
Grandprize 95 69 67 1 2 1 4 29 32
Multipik 71 59 48 5 8 2 24 34 50
Average 72 56 45 4 3 1 25 42 54
LSD (0.05) 22 22 29 7 9 4 22 24 30

1 Total of 12 harvests. Planting was 14 August 2017. Harvests 1-4 occurred on 20, 22, 25, and 27 September;  Harvests  5-8 occurred on 29 September, 2, 4, and 6 October; Harvests   9-12 occurred on 9, 11, 13, and 16 October.
2 Marketable fruit are graded into U.S. No. 1 (requires younger and more tender squash than U.S. No. 2 which are permitted to  be more mature and allows greater surface area to be affected by defects).
3 Culls consisted of primarily misshaped fruit.
  Fruit were discolored or rough/disfigured due to virus.


Table 20. Yellow Squash cultigen trial – Percent plant stand count and average fruit length and width among replicated treatments. Clayton, NC, 20171.

Fruit Size (mm) 2

Cultivar

Company

%

Stand1

Avg.

Length

Avg.

Width

Cosmos Abbot & Cobb 90 15.6 3.7
Goldprize Clifton 83 13.3 4.2
Grandprize Syngenta 83 14.5 3.8
Multipik HM Clause 83 13.8 3.9
Average 85 14.3 3.9
LSD (0.05) 1.9 0.8

1 Final plant stand count was taken on 5 September 2017.
2 Fruit size measurements were taken at harvests 6 and 7, October 2nd and 4th, 2017